Wednesday, May 20, 2020

How Language Can Be Defined As An Educational Environment...

Language may be defined as a verbal and/or visual method of communication with which information is disseminated, and meaning is constructed. Going beyond speech, language is a diverse system encompassing written word, symbols and signs. Whilst this diversity suggests there is no â€Å"proper English† the term â€Å"standard† language can be applied to the discourse that is most common in an educational environment. Australian schools have traditionally measured success in reading and writing against this single standard of literacy. However, the digital world students now occupy demands of them a new multi-literacy, which is more heavily reliant on semiotics and embraces diverse forms of discourse. Educators should recognise and embrace this diversity and the varied ways in which the discourses support personal development and prepare students for life in a digital workforce. By exploring the modes of communication valued in texting, networking sites- such as Sna pchat, or video sharing websites like YouTube, educators can understand the role these Discourses play in students life and help children learn to converge their tenor to meet linguistic expectations both inside and outside the classroom. One of the most common communication technologies used today is instant messaging. Upon its conception, this referred to the real-time exchange of text messages from one mobile device to another through what is known as a text. Instant messaging morphed the way people used writtenShow MoreRelatedComputer Mediated Communication Theory Is Defined As A Type Of Human Communication1548 Words   |  7 PagesComputer-mediated communication theory is defined as a type of human communication that occurs through the use of two or more electronic devices. Human-computer interaction involves the study, planning, design, and uses of communication between people and computers. The computer serves as the network for the communication between the two individuals. There is a source of information that is sent by the sender through the network, also known as the source of noise, to the receiver to reach its destinationRead MoreEducating Through A Multicultural Perspective Essay1644 Words   |  7 P agesproviding opportunity and equity for all. Consequently, our educational system is the cornerstone for providing equal opportunity for all persons. Therefore, as the United States continues to be immersed with individuals from various cultures, the educational system must consistently seek to assure that educational opportunities are equally distributed to our students. In order for this task to be accomplished, developing a well-defined illustration of what multicultural education is necessary. WithRead MoreThe Educational Software as a Motivational Tool in English Language Teaching1734 Words   |  7 PagesINTRODUCTION The educational software as a motivational tool in English Language Teaching. Time has gone by and the teaching of foreign languages has developed, specially in English Language Teaching. Among the most significant advances one may find: the determination of the professors of trusting on their own resources, the right to choose their cross point between the theory and the practice and to look for pedagogical solutions to the problems. One issue that is still subject of discussionRead MoreThe Current Era Of Education Essay1711 Words   |  7 Pagesaccording to his previous experience and skills, however, despite these advantages, this type of education continues to live its beginnings and face obstacles and challenges In front of basic education which is considered a key stepping stone to other educational projects that give learner leadership capabilities, and is an important period in behavior modification, and acquire new skills for that little child by nature loving and eager to acquire knowledge and experience where the teacher interacts withRead MoreE nglish As A Global Language1715 Words   |  7 Pagesrecognised as a global language and an important lingua franca in the world. English as a Global Language emphasizes that a language achieves a genuinely global status when it develops a special role that is recognised in every country (Crystal 2003) (p.3). In achieving this status, Crystal describes that the language has to use by other countries around the world and receive a special position within that foreign communities despite of having their own mother tongue languages. Crystal further addedRead MoreExploiting Three Dimensional Virtual Worlds For Learning Languages1391 Words   |  6 Pages Exploiting Three Dimensional Virtual Worlds for Learning Languages Name Institution’s Name Date ABSTRACT Three-dimensional (3D) virtual worlds, being one of the current contributions to the swift growing technology, have attracted a significant attention among teachers of language due to their role in serving as interactive learning tools as far as online education of languages is concerned around the globe. For instance, by March 2007, an estimate of over 200 universities and other academicRead MoreConstructivism and Connectivism as Theories of Learning Essay1554 Words   |  7 Pagesour lives. Our age is called a digital age. People use technology not only for communication ,but also for education. As a result , educational materials are not only presented through the text books, but also presented by using technologies inside classrooms.Moreover,learners are asked to access information by using technologies outside a classroom Educational technology is an umbrella term that includes many types of technologies such as computer softwares,the internet, I pads , iPods, andRead MoreComparing Two Different Approaches of Curriculum and Their Benefits1335 Words   |  6 Pageswill focus on two different curriculum approaches and its benefit in childrens education taking in to consideration the values and aims It will at teacher’s role or guidance in the learning environment and how parents and care givers to contribute towards their children’s education Olivia 1997 defined curriculum is as the content chosen to be taught or subjects that are most useful for the contemporary living to reach a goal. While Robert M. Hutchins viewed curriculum as changes that occur inRead MoreOral Language And Development : Developing Language Through Nature And Nurture Theories Essay1276 Words   |  6 PagesSarah Przybylo Oral Language and Development Developing Language Through Nature and Nurture Theories Language development is much more complex than one would think. Not only are there strategies and factors behind developing one’s native language, but there are also theories set in place to guide the steps of building language. On the other hand, nurture inspired theories (also know as empiricist) are based of factors in the environment. This means that people believe nurture theories are basedRead MoreEssay on Critical Literacy and Pedagogy1412 Words   |  6 Pagesthis time where we receive knowledge different then anytime before, the question of how we should interact with it should not be just raised, but emphasized on. In this new flat fast world that we get our knowledge through, critical literacy is a valuable tool and ability that should be recalled and available for all readers. More specific, it should be transferred by teachers to students in all educational environment. It is an important ability for students to have towards texts. And redefining texts

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Statement of Purpose for Havard Application - 661 Words

In 1995, I burst into tears in entrance ceremony of primary school in China. I was the only one in school who was not granted a red scarf. As a seven-year-old, I thought it was the red scarf that divided me from others. I badgered the school principal until I was finally allowed to be the first foreign student in school who owned a red scarf, only to find out that wearing a red scarf to school made little difference. Ever since, my identity has roamed somewhere between an insider and an outsider. Only later did I realize that this would be one of my biggest traits to study China and its neighboring nations as a Korean. As a daughtor of an ethnologist, I grew up to be a nomad culturally and intellectually. When I was seven, I followed my father to China and grew up in Beijing for three years. From then on, I have been following him as he conducted fieldwork in Southwest China, learning about the most exuberant diversity a nation can express. I double majored in integrated studies of c ulture, a self-designed major in Scranton Honors Program, and sociology, in Ewha Womans University, Korea. I persued variety not only in curriculum, but also in extracurricular activities. I volunteered in Cambodia, learnt Thai culture and history, and studied in University of Hawaii at Manoa for one academic year as an exchage student. My graduate dissertations from college are reflections of the diverse interests I pursued in my course of study and my cultural nomadism. I wrote one of myShow MoreRelatedLinkedin Case3604 Words   |  15 Pagesmembers milestone, with members in over 200 countries, and catering to 19 languages. LinkedIn’s primary purpose is to allow members to â€Å"create, manage and share their professional identity online, build and engage with their professional network, access shared knowledge and insights, and find business opportunities, enabling them to be more productive and successful†. (LinkedIn) Mission Statement Our mission is to connect the world’s professionals to make them more productive and successful. OurRead MoreHuman Resource Management Policies and Practices That Can Support Business Strategies and Contribute to Improved Performance of the Organization4241 Words   |  17 Pagesare some companies who have been sustained over the years and are still able to maintain their workforce and also keep them happy and motivated. Organization success and performance are popularly measured assessed by the outlook of the financial statement; the structure behind the system are neglected meanwhile it is the one of the most important aspect of an organization and its harnesses to optimum performance. We neglect the contributions of Human Resources and the various practices put into playRead MoreThe Impact of Information Technology on Banking Services (Case Study of Zenith International Bank Plc)12904 Words   |  52 PagesTABLE OF CONTENT†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã ¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦...v ABSTRACT†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.vi CHAPTER ONE 1.1 Introduction†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.†¦.....1-5 1.2 Background of the Study†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦......5-6 1.3 Statement of the Problem†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..6 1.4 Research Question†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦6-7 1.5 Research Hypothesis†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦......7 1.6 Justification and Significance of the study †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦7-8 1.7 ScopeRead MoreASSESSING LEARNERS IN LIFELONG LEARNING7015 Words   |  29 Pagescompetencies they are required to demonstrate. I see classroom assessment as having four main purposes. The first three include: Diagnostic or needs assessment purpose: To determine what students already know so teachers can decide the topics and approaches to use. Formative purpose for teacher: To assess student knowledge or performance on some key topic or dimension to inform instructional plans. Summative purpose: To judge or evaluate student performance (i.e., give a grade). In addition, research isRead MoreResearch on Internal Audit Participate in Risk Management-Based on the Erm Framework of Coso20007 Words   |  81 Pagesaudit was latest defined as: internal audit is an independent and objective confirmation and consultation activity. It evaluates and improves effect of risk management, control and governance process by using systematic and normative ways, with the purpose of helping improve enterprise state of operation and increase value for enterprise (IIA, 1999). 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Equilibrium and Optimization Manpower planning has been a suitable area of interest for operational research and the application of statistical techniques. An organization can be envisaged as a series of stocks and flows as part of an overall system of resource allocation. With the growing use of computers, the techniques and models became more ambitious and probably beyondRead MoreHr Al Ain Distribution Strategy6744 Words   |  27 Pagesextra days off. 15 Training and development 15 Compensation system 16 Flow of people 16 Increasing hit rate: 17 Flow of performance management: 18 Flow of information 19 CONCLUSION 20 RECOMMENDATIONS 21 REFERENCES 22 INTRODUCTION The purpose of HR strategies is to guide HRM development and implementation programs, it helps set out what the organization intends to do about the different aspects of its human resource management policies and practices. They will be integrated with the businessRead MoreOrganization s Failure Or Success9418 Words   |  38 Pagesincentive mechanism to enhance employees’ involvement, performance and higher organization productivity will be realized (Havard press, 2005). It is alongside this background that this study examines the fundamental and relevant issues of whether motivating the staff has any significant effect on their performance as well as that of the organization they work for. 1.2 Statement of the problem One of the most important and difficult duties of the management of an organization is how to motivate employeesRead MoreLibrary Management204752 Words   |  820 PagesInformation, Second Edition Arlene G. Taylor The School Library Media Manager, Third Edition Blanche Woolls Basic Research Methods for Librarians Ronald R. 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Models Theories

Question: Drawing on the theories and models presented in BZ251 Consumer Behaviour, prepare a brief report for Pastor Pat discussing the factors to be considered for this venture. Answer: Introduction The era of industrialization needs an improving factor among the business policies, which in terms defines the capability and competitiveness of the organization. Consumer behavior is the most important aspect for finding improved marketing strategies, which will maintain their position in the competitive market. Consumer behavior can be defined as, the procedure of the understanding the customer needs using proper procedure and services to fulfill the consumer needs (Aviv et al. 2015). Consumer behavior involves sociology, psychology and social anthropology. The demographic study is done on the customers to understand the behavior of them to cope up with the variable needs of them. An organization should have some effective planning and measures to calibrate the variable needs of their customers. According to the context of this report, Pastor Pat has decided to set up a combined Christian bookstore with the option of Op-Shop in Bankstown NSW. Pastor Pat has planned to arrange music set up and gifts with in his shops, which will make it more attractive and innovative to their customer (Cantallops and Salvi 2014). Factors important for considering the venture: The venture Capitalist has to be concerned about the venture while he is selecting the investment. In addition to this, it is the duty of the entrepreneur to consider several factors before selecting the venture. The rapid growth of the venture capitalist industry caused as there are availability of unprecedented amount of capital. This means that, the entrepreneurs are facing bewildering choice between the different sources of finance. The following factors will help Mr. Pat to implement his decision: Hands on or hands off advance: The hands on approach of management involves the representation on board. It mainly comprises of the interaction in between the entrepreneur and venture industrial. There is an attempt developed for the creation of value in the advisory board. It comprises of the recruitment and finding the technical collaboration. Structuring flexibility of the deal: Every entrepreneur should seek out for the funding which meets best the needs of him. There are some funds, which are very flexible in case of considering the important factors for the venture selection. Others have the some kind of extreme rules, though there are various advances in between these two extremes. Option of exiting the aspirations: The exiting aspiration of the venture capitalist, where these are: trade sale, quotations, or buy back, these are not clarified at the first stage, as it may cause the reason for developing the conflict in the organization. There must be clear understanding in between these two, so the entrepreneur make it sure that the aspiration of exiting is not suppressing his interest. Viability and flexibility of the funds: It is the duties of the entrepreneur make sure that the funds have committed backers. There should not be quick realization of importance of the capital gains. Records of the track related to funds with its team: Entrepreneur should monitor the period for which the funds have been deposited of. There must be a good chemistry between these two factors. The commitment of the team should for full time with the proper experience of general management. The above mentioned factors are very essential for selecting a venture for marketing. For setting a One-Stop Shop in the center of the Bankstown these factors will be helpful to his entrepreneurial strategy development. Importance of consumer behavior in venture: Consumer behavior has several issues for understanding the issues of the consumer and to do improvement among the strategies involved into the business policies: The customers always chose between the brands, retailers and products according to their psychological behavior of them (Claiborne and Sirgy 2015). The environmental effect on the consumer psychology Consumer behavior while considering the other marketing decisions and shopping. A limitation of the knowledge among the consumer influences the marketing decision making from various ways. Motivational aspect of the consumer in case of the decision making for choosing the products and services among different brand and providences is important. The effective way of implementing marketing strategies to impress the consumer in a effective manner. According to the context, Importance of consumer behavior specifies different applications of it in case of establishing One-Stop shop: Firstly it is applicable towards the betterment of marketing strategies involved in to the establishment of the shop in Bankstown NWS. An example can easily explain this: consumers pay more attention towards the advertisement while they are purchasing something or interested for shopping, so Pastor Pat have to schedule their advertisements in those places and timings where they can easily attract their customers towards their offerings and services. It is always very crucial for any organization or business holder to impress their first customer, because at the stage of starting they dont have numerous numbers of customers to advertise their offerings. So Mr. Pat must have good financial back plan with the pleasant atmosphere with innovative offering which includes good books and music collections (Escalas et al. 2013). Secondly another innovative aspect of consumer behavior is that, the individual who is planning to build up a improvised business must have the idea of social marketing. Social marketing involves the strategies to understand the consumer, just selling of goods or services are not enough for the social marketing. According to the context of the research, Mr. Pat should more focus on the strategies understanding their customers more for developing his business, it will include promotion of their providing like books and their music collections and other attractive elements introduced at their One-Stop Shop (Escalas et al. 2013). Final application of consumer behavior is that, study of consumer behavior makes the consumer better one. For an example: if one consumer buys a set of music CDs rather than buying two or a single CDs they will have to a bit less than the single one. If these strategies are known to the employees of the one stop shop can approve the customers to buy more than one series of CDs, which in turns profitable to Mr. Pat. Research methods for understanding consumer behavior The elaborated study of consumer behavior involves different kind of research methods for finding the various consumer behaviors: There are two important methods for understanding the consumer behavior. The methods are: primary and secondary research methods. Primary research methods involves: the tools and specific elements for understanding the consumer demands. These tools are: customer feedback, questionnaire, surveys through phone and observing focus groups of consumers (Frank 2014). Demographic information about the consumer behavior Demographic information is all about the information about the shopping details of the consumer: educational specification of the consumer, income of the consumer, ages of the children of their family and habit of the family in a daily manner. There are several identification factors which involved into the importance of the consumer behavior: economical attitude, determinant measured in terms of psychology, determinant measured according to the social factors (Goh et al. 2013). Economic determinants may be stated as the financial condition or economic condition of the business holder or consumers. So the Mr. Pat need to first study the background of their consumer, what are their priorities and what kind of services and goods they prefer in their daily life (Venkatesh et al. 2012). When the consideration comes to the determinants related to psychological measures of their customer, it is very crucial for Mr. Pat to examine the condition of the market and which sectors are in competition with their providing to their consumer. These steps are the base element for understanding the determinants involved in to the psychological aspect. Determinant measured in terms of the social factors are concerned with the positional measures of the shop. Social issues are very much influencing to the consumers and it is mainly done through the atmospheric assessment of the area, where the shop is established (Hugstad et al. 2013). In conclusion of the importance of consumer behavior the statement which can elaborately describes it is: the behavior or attitudinal variety developed by the consumer towards the seller or any organization, when they are purchasing any product (Juster 2015). Mr. Pat should have to focus on the consumer behavior for establishing his One-Stop Shop in the Bankstown NSW. As it is quite obvious that, if the owner know all the models and factors involved in the establishing a shop then it will be easy to set it up in the centre of the Bankstown CBD. The importance of the consumer can be easily described with the help of some important models related to the consumer behavior. These models will be helpful for Mr. Pat for measuring his limitation of thought while considering the establishment of the One-Stop shop. Evaluation of the strategies from these models will be helpful to Mr. Pat for understanding the new innovative competitive market and requirements of the customers. The purpose behind the purchase gets clarified to the Mr. Pat then the implementation of the satisfactory strategies becomes quite easy (Kardes et al. 2014). Models of consumer behavior The consumer behavior model mainly serves two distinguishable functions: The specifications that affect the purchase of the services Consumer behavior model provides the future overview of the implementation These above mentioned points are very important to be maintained and for maintaining the points, consumer behavior model is very crucial. These models are the essential tools for judging the consumer behavior. Black box model: The black box model related to consumer behavior model is defined as the stimulus responsible for buyer behavior. The stimulus is known as the promotion of any goods or services, which is represented to the consumer and the total environment according to the black box of the buyer. There two subpart in the black box: 1) characteristics of the buyer and 2) decision making process of the buyer. Characteristics of the buyer may be related to the social, psychological and cultural perspective of the consumer. These factors are totally internal according to the consumer, so the decision cant be changed easily by the marketer. The Black Box model is mainly concerned about the response of the consumer after the consumers well- knowledgeable assertion making (Li et al. 2013). According to the context of the report, Mr. Pat can apply the Black Box model to understand the detailed background of their consumer and their various needs changing due to innovations in the market. The black box model helps Mr. Pat to gain knowledge about their customer and then the decision making aspect of the Black Box model, shows the way of how the consumer is get attracted towards the product or services and faces the alternatives and finally arrive at the step of purchasing decision making (Mullen and Johnson 2013). This aspect also leads to the feedback of the consumer which helps Mr. Pat to understand their standard of providences (Mullen and Johnson 2013). Cognitive model: Cognitive approach related to the consumer behavior is defined as the noticed actions towards the relational cognition. Each and every individual is taken as the processor of information. Analytical cognitive model: There are mainly two type of cognition model related to the consumer behavior. These are: Analytical model and prescriptive model. The analytical model mainly focuses on the crucial elements those are involved in analyzing the consumer behavior. These elements establish intimacy among the decision making factors of the consumer. The scope of these models makes them capable to achieve the label grand models. The model related to consumer decision and behavioral model of buyer are two very important models of analytical model of consumer behavior (Solomon 2014). Analytical cognitive model involves the theory related Buyer Behavior and the model related to Consumer Decision Making process. Both the process are involved in to the process of understanding the customer and about making strategies for innovation accordingly the consumer demands (Sparks et al. 2013). These two aspects of cognitive model of consumer behavior also state the same ideologies for setting good position in the market. In case of Mr. Pat, analytical behavior of the cognitive model introduces the elements, which are very important for the meeting the consumer demands. Socially, psychologically and economically this model can guide Mr. Pat how to set up the strategies and how to implement those on their field of business (Sparks et al. 2013). Prescriptive model: Prescriptive model of consumer behavior defines the proper structure of the consumer behavior. The above mentioned element explains the effects and the sequence of the elements. These elements help the marketer to analyze the situation and they easily find the factors, which needs to be modified or changed according to the consumer demands (Venkatesh et al. 2012). Prescriptive model of related to the cognitive model is all about theories about the rational action and theories of deliberate behavior. This model highlights the attitudinal sense of the behavior towards the providing of any organization or any marketer. The expectation of the buyer can easily be measured by the theory related to the rational action. This factor makes the marketer alert about the on-going trends in the market, which they have to add in to their offerings (Wyer Jr and Srull 2014). Cognitive model related to consumer behavior helps Mr. Pat, which elements should noticed while considering the consumer demands. In the center of the Bankstown in NSW there are several influential factors which motivate the customer from various angles; this should be the matter of concern of Mr. Pat. Apart from these aspects Mr. Pat can get innovative ideologies to improve their strategies by knowing the choice of interest of their consumer, which will guide him to understand, what their customer want new beyond their providing. Economic Man Model: Economic man model is another model related to the consumer behavior. This model comprises of mainly utility factor of any products according to the view point of the consumer. There are few factors which are the part of the this model: Effect of the price: According to the consumer, if the price of the product is less then, the products have the high utility factor and can be considered as the quantity for purchase. Effects of substitutions: If the substitute products are less costly than the original product in the market, then the original products have less utility than the alternate one. Effect of the income: If there is availability of money in the hand of the consumer, then there will be more amount of purchase. This will in turns affect the profitability or that concerned organization. The decision making aspect related to the economic man model is totally based of some assumptions: if the consumer resources are inadequate, the consumer will invest the existing money to the get high level of satisfaction. Consumers always have the idea of the utility of and product or services, which makes him aware of the trends going on in the market. According to the context of the report, Mr. Pat can implement Economic Man Model, to evaluate his consumers capability of purchase and how innovatively he strategize his providing, that his customer easily can buy and satisfy their need according to their choice. Mr. Pat can recognize the utility of each product and services in his One-Stop Shop, which make him aware about the attitudinal behavior of the consumer, as this factor is very crucial in case of his business, it will strengthen his strategies. Conclusion: The paper has an elaborate study of consumer behavior, which involves the actual meaning of consumer behavior and its importance in marketing and last but not the least the application of the consumer behavior. These factors mentioned above shows the deliberate usages and advantages of consumer behavior while considering the improvement of any business. This paper discuses about the implementation of Black box model, Economic Man Model and Cognitive model in terms of consumer behavior, which is too much helpful for Mr. Pat to set up his business in Banksown in NSW. The behavior of the buyer and decision making process of the buyer while choosing the product or services are differentiate in well described manner by these three models of consumer behavior. Decision making of the buyer influences the marketer in various ways, as decision making make the marketer aware of the alternative products in the market and the evolving trends for the upcoming days. So consumer behavior along with its different models are very crucial for understanding the behavior of the consumer to compete with in the market, this approach strengthen the positional approach of the organization. Reference: Aviv, Y., Wei, M.M. and Zhang, F., 2015.Responsive pricing of fashion products: The effects of demand learning and strategic consumer behavior. Working Paper, Washington University. Cantallops, A.S. and Salvi, F., 2014. New consumer behavior: A review of research on eWOM and hotels.International Journal of Hospitality Management,36, pp.41-51. Claiborne, C.B. and Sirgy, M.J., 2015. Self-image congruence as a model of consumer attitude formation and behavior: A conceptual review and guide for future research. InProceedings of the 1990 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) Annual Conference(pp. 1-7). Springer International Publishing. Escalas, J., White, K., Townsend, C., Ward, M.K., Chan, C., Kettle, K.L., Mercurio, K.R., Argo, J.J., Sengupta, J., Sood, S. and Broniarczyk, S.M., 2013. Self-Identity and Consumer Behavior Dissociative versus Associative Responses to Social Identity Threat: The Role of Consumer Self-Construal Self-Affirmation through the Choice of Highly Aesthetic Products It's Not Me, It's You: How Gift Giving Creates Giver Identity Threat as a Function of Social Closeness Identifiable but Not Identical: Combining Social Identity and Uniqueness Motives in Choice The Signature Effect: Signing Influences Consumption-Related Behavior by Priming Self-Identity An ....Journal of consumer research,39(5), pp.xv-xviii. Escalas, J., White, K., Townsend, C., Ward, M.K., Chan, C., Kettle, K.L., Mercurio, K.R., Argo, J.J., Sengupta, J., Sood, S. and Broniarczyk, S.M., 2013. Self-Identity and Consumer Behavior Dissociative versus Associative Responses to Social Identity Threat: The Role of Consumer Self-Construal Self-Affirmation through the Choice of Highly Aesthetic Products It's Not Me, It's You: How Gift Giving Creates Giver Identity Threat as a Function of Social Closeness Identifiable but Not Identical: Combining Social Identity and Uniqueness Motives in Choice The Signature Effect: Signing Influences Consumption-Related Behavior by Priming Self-Identity An ....Journal of consumer research,39(5), pp.xv-xviii. Frank, R., 2014.Microeconomics and behavior. McGraw-Hill Higher Education. Goh, K.Y., Heng, C.S. and Lin, Z., 2013. Social media brand community and consumer behavior: Quantifying the relative impact of user-and marketer-generated content.Information Systems Research,24(1), pp.88-107. Hugstad, P., Taylor, J.W. and Bruce, G.D., 2013. The effects of social class and perceived risk on consumer information search.Journal of Services Marketing. Juster, F.T., 2015.Anticipations and purchases: An analysis of consumer behavior. Princeton University Press. Kardes, F., Cronley, M. and Cline, T., 2014.Consumer behavior. Cengage Learning. Li, X., Li, X.R. and Hudson, S., 2013. The application of generational theory to tourism consumer behavior: An American perspective.Tourism Management,37, pp.147-164. Mullen, B. and Johnson, C., 2013.The psychology of consumer behavior. Psychology Press. Mullen, B. and Johnson, C., 2013.The psychology of consumer behavior. Psychology Press. Solomon, M.R., 2014.Consumer behavior: Buying, having, and being. Engelwood Cliffs, NJ: prentice Hall. Sparks, B.A., Perkins, H.E. and Buckley, R., 2013. Online travel reviews as persuasive communication: The effects of content type, source, and certification logos on consumer behavior.Tourism Management,39, pp.1-9. Sparks, B.A., Perkins, H.E. and Buckley, R., 2013. Online travel reviews as persuasive communication: The effects of content type, source, and certification logos on consumer behavior.Tourism Management,39, pp.1-9. Venkatesh, V., Thong, J.Y. and Xu, X., 2012. Consumer acceptance and use of information technology: extending the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology.MIS quarterly,36(1), pp.157-178. Venkatesh, V., Thong, J.Y. and Xu, X., 2012. Consumer acceptance and use of information technology: extending the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology.MIS quarterly,36(1), pp.157-178. Wyer Jr, R.S. and Srull, T.K., 2014.Handbook of Social Cognition: Volume 2: Applications. Psychology Press.

Thursday, April 23, 2020

The Peculiarities of Housing Crisis in the USA

Today economists widely discuss the perspectives and the first indicators of the development of the new global financial crisis which can influence all the economical and social fields. That is why it is necessary to examine the previous experience and the economical background of the countries and focus on the causes of the crisis of 2007-2009 in order to prevent the progress of the critical situation and overcome the most dangerous effects nowadays.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Peculiarities of Housing Crisis in the USA specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Many researchers agree that one of the main causes of the financial crisis in the USA in 2007-2009 was the housing crisis which contributed to the development of the problem and to the increase of risky tendencies. The housing crisis of 2006-2008 should be discussed as the process which includes two main stages which are the formation and the burst of â₠¬Ëœhousing bubbles’ and the following subprime mortgage crisis. To understand the peculiarities of the crisis, it is necessary to concentrate on the characteristics of ‘housing bubbles’ typical for the US economy of the 2000th which ‘burst’ caused the development of the following crisis. It is important to notice that ‘housing bubbles’ are rather speculative in their nature, and they are characterized by a range of such features as the rapid and enormous increases of the valuations of property, and it usually ends in the immediate drop of the prices which can lead to the borrowers’ crisis because they have no the opportunity to pay for their property according to the mortgages (Bhattacharya). The housing crisis in the USA was not the crisis of building companies or of the housing rent market. It was the result of bursting ‘housing bubbles’ which were based on the fictitious funds which actually were not connected with the real prices for the property and real borrowers’ incomes. Today economists accentuate a number of causes for the development of housing crisis in the USA. According to Goodman, these causes are â€Å"high default transition rates, low cure rates, and longer liquidation timelines† (Goodman 27). However, this characterization of the causes is rather limited. In his works, Stone focused on the controversial aspects which can be considered as some of the main conditions for the beginning of the crisis. He developed such influential factors as the wide income inequality in the housing industry, the facts of persistent racism in housing provision, the discussion of housing as a speculative commodity, and as a result, the overdependence of housing financing on debt capital markets (Stone).Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More â€Å"Taking these three elements togethe r, no sector of the economy has been as dependent on debt as housing† (Stone 36). Moreover, in his works on the issue of the housing crisis, Stone presents the complex analysis of the major causes of the misbalance in the economy of the housing sector in the country. The crisis developed according to several stages the main phases of which were the burst of ‘housing bubble’ and its effects. The housing boom ended in 2006 when â€Å"the share of subprime mortgages in total mortgage originations reached 20 per cent†, the prices reached the peak and then declined in the same year (Bardhan 3). 2007 could be characterized by numerous defaults and foreclosures, and in 2008 the whole financial system of the USA began to suffer from â€Å"collapsing transactions in derivatives† (Bardhan 3). In 2006 in the situation of the continuous growth of the prices for real property Americans were ready to take loans under any conditions because they were sure that they could return the money with the help of definite financial operations and even make some profits. Businessmen concentrated on the constant increase of prices without paying attention to the fact that this process cannot be endless. As a result, the amount of loans which were not supported by the real incomes of borrowers increased greatly (Prassas). Thus, in the situation of the open competitiveness banks did all possible to attract the clients and gave the loans without consulting the information about their incomes. Derivatives from mortgages were popular with the public. They were bought in order to get the definite income. The facts of the increase of these incomes persuaded the public to buy more, but this effect was not long. There were more and more derivatives, the difference between the speculative and fictitious capitals, delinquencies and foreclosures grew. It was the first step to further developing the situation with delinquencies and foreclosures because in 2008 the p rices for the real property rapidly decreased, but the sum of the necessary repayments increased. Now a great number of Americans could not pay for their loans (Bhattacharya). Analyzing the progress of crisis, Stone accentuates that â€Å"borrowing far beyond any realistic potential of repayment – built on the myth that residential property values always and forever rise – a classic bubble† (Stone 36). It is possible to discuss the consequences of housing crisis in the USA from two opposite positions. Many economists accentuate that there are no positive tendencies in the crisis’s consequences. The decline of housing prices resulted in rising foreclosures. Many organizations specialized in credits, financial entities, and investment banks became bankrupts. The negative results of the crisis were also connected with the main government-sponsored enterprises, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. The threat for the investment companies created the dangerous situation for the whole financial system of the country which also broke the relations with the international investors (Bardhan). â€Å"Credit markets became nonfunctional, rate spreads between risky and risk-free government debt skyrocketed, and the entire financial sector effectively became not just illiquid but insolvent† (Bardhan 3).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Peculiarities of Housing Crisis in the USA specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Nevertheless, it is important to make the accents on the fact that the housing crisis was not spread on the private commerce because of the differences in realizing the main principles of the development and financing (Bardhan). That is why the problem of housing crisis is predominantly associated with the average Americans who bought the real property taking credits and had no money to pay for their loans after decreasing the prices on property. However, several positi ve trends in the housing market can be observed. â€Å"Prices have fallen significantly, housing is more affordable now than at any time in the past two decades, and the tax credit for first-time homebuyers has helped spur purchasing† (Goodman 26). Thus, two indicators of the crisis in the field were determined by the investors who suffered from their results significantly. They focused on the increase of â€Å"the number of loans in delinquency or foreclosure† or the â€Å"housing overhang† and the growth of a number of the borrowers â€Å"with negative equity who are likely to default† (Goodman 26). To fulfill all these conditions for the development of the crisis, it is necessary to create the critical situation depending on the growth of the housing occupancy and debt costs which is accompanied with rising property taxes, the high leverage supported by the decline of prices on the real property, the general decline of personal incomes which leads to t he inability to pay for mortgages, and as the decisive factor, the decrease of the real property values (Stone). The threat of bankruptcy made the companies which function in the field of housing market and banks make definite decisions in order to solve the consequences of the crisis. The situation results in the progress of different systems which could contribute to overcoming the crisis: In order to continue to qualify consumers for the purchase of a home, and to help drive the housing market, lenders offered more creative financing options, such as 40-year mortgages, interest-only loans, and jumbo loans, in addition to the typical business practices of offering loans based on fixed- and adjustable-rate mortgages, refinancing, and lending on the basis of home equity (Prassas 40). To overcome the problem of foreclosures and delinquencies, banks implemented a range of definite strict measures according to realizing the credit conditions for all the companies, in spite of their pay ing capacity. There are also several visions of the question of possibilities to predict the development of ‘economic bubbles’ and that is why to prevent the causes for critical situations in economy. The solution of this question can help to prevent global economic crises.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The lessons of the housing crisis in the USA in 2006-2009 can be considered as effective for analyzing the situation and developing the range of measures in order to be able to overcome and even predict the development of the negative tendencies in economy in the future. Works Cited Bardhan, Ashok. â€Å"Housing and the Financial Crisis in the US: Cause or Symptom?† The Journal for Decision Makers 34.3 (2009): 1-7. Print. Bhattacharya, Subhrendu. â€Å"Accelerated Trade in Housing Industry: An American Challenge in Recent Times†. Journal of International Economics 2.1 (2011): 76-84. Print. Goodman, Laurie. â€Å"Dimensioning Housing Crisis†. Financial Analysts Journal 66.3 (2010): 26-37. Print. Prassas, George. â€Å"Employment in Financial Activities: Double Billed by Housing and Financial Crises†. Monthly Labor Review 134.4 (2011): 40-44. Print. Stone, Michael E. â€Å"Housing and the Financial Crisis: Causes, Consequences, Cures†. Housing Financ e International 24.1 (2009): 34-39. Print. This essay on The Peculiarities of Housing Crisis in the USA was written and submitted by user Alma Castro to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Tuesday, March 17, 2020

The History of the Odometer

The History of the Odometer An odometer is an instrument that records the distance that a vehicle travels. It is different from a speedometer that measures the vehicles speed or the tachometer that indicates the speed of rotation of the engine, although you may see all three on the dashboard of an automobile. Timeline Encyclopedia Britannia credits Roman architect and engineer Vitruvius with inventing the odometer in 15 BCE. It used a chariot wheel, which is of standard size, turned 400 times in a Roman mile and was mounted in a frame with a 400-tooth cogwheel. For each mile, the cogwheel engaged a gear that dropped a pebble into the box. You knew how many miles you went by counting the pebbles. It was pushed by hand, though it may never have been actually built and used.   Blaise Pascal (1623 - 1662) invented a prototype of an odometer, the calculating machine called a Pascaline. The Pasacaline was constructed of gears and wheels. Each gear contained 10 teeth that when moved one complete revolution, advanced a second gear one place. This is the same principle employed in the mechanical odometer. Thomas Savery (1650 - 1715) was an English military engineer and inventor who  patented the first crude steam engine in 1698.  Among Saverys other inventions was an odometer for ships, a device that measured distance traveled. Ben Franklin (1706 - 1790) is best known as a statesman and writer. However, he was also an inventor who invented swim fins, bifocals, a glass harmonica, watertight bulkheads for ships, the lightning rod, a wood stove, and an odometer. While serving as Postmaster General in 1775, Franklin decided to analyze the best routes for delivering the mail. He created a simple odometer to help measure the mileage of the routes that he attached to his carriage. An odometer called the roadometer was invented in 1847 by the Morman pioneers crossing the plains from Missouri to Utah. The roadometer attached to a wagon wheel and counted the revolutions of the wheel as the wagon traveled. It was designed by William Clayton and Orson Pratt and built by carpenter Appleton Milo Harmon. Clayton was inspired to invent the roadometer after developing his first method of recording the distance the pioneers traveled each day. Clayton had determined that 360 revolutions of a wagon wheel made a mile, he then tied a red rag to the wheel and counted the revolutions to keep an accurate record of the mileage traveled. After seven days, this method became tiresome, and Clayton went on to invent the roadometer that was first used on the morning of May 12, 1847. William Clayton is also known for his writing of the pioneer hymn Come, Come, Ye Saints. In 1854, Samuel McKeen of Nova Scotia designed another early version of the odometer, a device that measures mileage driven. His version was attached to the side of a carriage and measured the miles with the turning of the wheels.

Saturday, February 29, 2020

#1 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

#1 - Essay Example On the other hand labor relations is the dealings between management and the workers with respect to the employment conditions. â€Å"Most commonly, however, labor relations refer to dealings between management and a workforce that is already unionized, or has the potential to become unionized. Labor relations is thus crucial to industries like autos and airlines with heavily unionized workforces† (Labor Relations, 2009) In most of the times the interests of the organizations and that of the labors would be opposite in direction. The management always keen in maximizing their profit and for that purpose they will compromise the interests of the workers. On the other hand labor unions are always working for the wellbeing of the workers and they are not much concerned about the profit of the organization. For workers what they are getting is more important than what the organization is achieving. Both these interests contradict at times which will end up in strained labor relationships and trade union strikes. In a changing world, especially under globalization and liberalization, a well maintained labor relationship is important for an organization in order to compete in the market. Customers will trust an organization if their product or service supply doesn’t interrupt. Poor labor relationship always results in labor union strikes which will interrupt the production of goods or service. A temporary suspension of service or supply of goods in the market will force the customers to search for other options. Once the customers move away from the organization, it is difficult for the organization to bring them back. Labor problems destroy the image of the organization in the society in which it operates. The public will often take the side of the labors even if the justice is on the other side because of the false assumption that the management always trying to exploit the workers. This public

Thursday, February 13, 2020

Response letter for article Video Game Violence by Mark and Keisha Essay

Response letter for article Video Game Violence by Mark and Keisha Hoerrner - Essay Example For this reason, it is necessary to consider the skills the game is trying to teach your child. If the game emphasizes on shooting, killing, robbery and other antisocial behaviors, it may not be a good idea to purchase it. Video games reward their players for various behaviors. In most violent video games, behaviors such as shooting and killing are highly rewarded with points (Anderson& Warburton, 2012). As your child continues to play these games, he is encouraged to do more of the killings and shootings in order to earn more points (Hoerrner & Hoerrner, 2006). These activities, although violent in nature, attract the biggest rewards. Since your child is still developing, it is likely that he will grow up cherishing violence. Therefore, the video game you purchase for your child will make him gravitate towards negative social action over time. Because video games increase the child’s appetite for violence, he is likely to want more of this entertainment as he grows; both in real life and in the gaming world (Gentile & Anderson, 2003). These games train children to view the world as a dangerous place in which they have to constantly look for enemies and other threats. Unfortunately, the only wa y of dealing with such threats, as promoted in these games, is through violence (Giumetti & Markey, 2007). Because of the link between video games and violent behavior, it is important for you as a parent to understand the ratings given to the various games. In the article by Mark and Keisha Hoerrner (2006), it is noted that it is the responsibility of parents and society to understand what is being told in these video games. Before making the purchase, it is necessary to check the ratings of the game you intend to buy. This will help in purchasing a video game that is appropriate to the level and age of the child. In these games, elements such as